Mapping the Terrain of War Corporatism: The Human Terrain System within the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex

UPDATED: 03 March 2010; 17 March 2010; 19 March 2010; 22 March 2010; 26 April 2010; 03 June 2010; 05 June 2010; 30 November 2010; 10 June 2011; 30 September 2011; 03 March 2013

By Maximilian C. Forte

At least 37 corporations have vested interests, through contracts gained, in supporting the U.S. Army’s Human Terrain System (HTS) in particular, and in the development of “human terrain” capabilities across various branches of the Army apart from HTS (see for example: “The Pentagon’s “Other” Human Terrain System?“). Most of the newspaper coverage of HTS has focused almost exclusively on the role of BAE Systems, and the claimed “nationalization” of HTS1 (turning HTS employees into government workers, specifically labeled “intelligence analysts”) has not meant either the decline or disappearance of private contracting. Recruitment, training, and the design and equipping of technology used by HTS, and other human terrain branches in the Army, are all in the hands of private contractors. Several HTS employees have been, or continue to be, also employees of these corporations. There is considerable overlap and movement of senior personnel between several of these corporations and HTS in particular. Some of these individuals know each other from past work conducted for some of these private contractors.

Any suggestion that HTS is not about supporting war, and separate from the military-industrial complex and corporate war-profiteering, is at the very least naïve or disingenuous. As soon as corporations become such a significant part of the picture, arguments about “saving lives,” “peace keeping,” and “cultural sensitivity” become, at the very best, secondary concerns. The main concern for any corporation is the accumulation of capital. The main concern for any war corporatist is the accumulation of capital derived from engagement in warfare – the main drive is to maintain the war that produces the contracts that generate revenue and growth. HTS is thus very much part of the neoliberal economy of warfare, and academics are recruited – regardless of whatever they believe were the reasons for their recruitment – in order to support imperial warfare and thus to expand the profits of empire. Indeed, it would seem that several of the more outspoken HTS recruits from academia have been extremely naïve in their representations of the nature and purpose of their work – either naïve, or consciously duplicitous and cynical.

It should also be noted that several of these corporations (Lincoln) have been found to have roles in planting propaganda in foreign newspapers, which later fed back into U.S. domestic media coverage of foreign wars, and have performed roles in domestic spying (BAE Systems, Science Applications International Corporation [SAIC], MZM Inc.) and building domestic “counterterrorism” and “homeland security” capabilities (ManTech, and others). What is thus also being constructed, with the aid of HTS as pretext and justification, is the further development of repressive technologies aimed at the U.S. public. This is part of the blowback of empire against democracy at home.

HTS spokespersons have stressed that HTS does not do “intelligence” work, and nor do they support better targeted killing. With respect to the intelligence issue, usually we are faced with conflicting definitions of “intelligence” and some human terrain proponents do in fact speak of “ethnographic intelligence” and “cultural intelligence.”2 The point is that some of these companies are in fact primarily interested in intelligence work, according to their own terms. Booz Allen Hamilton explicitly seeks people who have extensive experience in the U.S. “intelligence community,” to train HTS recruits. The Walsingham Group is simultaneously engaged in “Human Factors & Human Social Cultural Behavioral Programs” and “Intelligence, CI/HUMINT, SOF & Irregular Warfare Support”, mixing interests with a Special Ops background, and support for Homeland Security. HTS contractors certainly have a “dark side” that the promotional propaganda for the human terrain doctrine obscures. Some are explicit that their technology, such as Ascend’s Tactical Ground Reporting device, is intended to “increase combat effectiveness.” One of the contractors, CACI, was at the heart of the Abu Ghraib torture scandal. In Iraq, the Wexford Group, now owned by CACI, was directly involved in supporting the targeted killing of people suspected of laying IEDs, supporting what were called “small kill teams” (note also HTS’ origins in the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defense Organization, JIEDDO). SCIA has also developed maps explicitly for the purpose of pinpointing the presence of “insurgents” or “bad guys” based on recorded behavior patterns.

Some of the companies also seem perfectly innocuous, lacking a profile or mission that is primarily military or intelligence-oriented. Some also lack more than very superficial websites that do little beyond providing a generic commercial image, a name, and maybe contact information – with nothing indicated about clients or contracts, or even who are the main officers of the company. Not all of the companies are American – at least two, MTC Technologies and CGI, are Canadian companies. Another of the companies is owned by American Indians.

Especially interesting are the several cases of clear overlaps between the companies’ personnel and consultants. For example, one will find overlaps between Georgia Tech, Aptima, and Mitre, in the figure of Eduardo Salas. Kari Kelton of Aptima also served HTS.3 HTS’ Steve Rotkoff is also tied to McNeil Technologies. Strong links tie Glevum Associates, the Lincoln Group, and HTS, to the extent that their senior personnel seem to be triplicated across all three: HTS’ Milan Sturgis, at the heart of a sexual harassment scandal,4 works as a consultant for Glevum; Alicia Boyd and Laurie Adler, both formerly with Lincoln, moved into HTS, and now Adler has moved into Glevum (for more on Adler see here and here). Daniel Wolfe, IT Director for HTS is closely tied to both Glevum and USI. Charlie King worked for both HTS and Wexford – CACI.5 We also learn that STI, a contractor for HTS, was owned by Blackwater, the mercenary corporation now called Xe. In addition, HTS’ Audrey Roberts, who we know from her glowing sales articles about HTS in the Journal of International Peace Operations (see here and here), has also served as a Research Associate for the International Peace Operations Association (IPOA) and Assistant Editor of its journal (JIPO) — the point being that IPOA is an association of private military corporations, including the likes of Blackwater.

1 DeYoung, Karen. (2009). U.S. moves to replace contractors in Iraq: Blackwater losing security role; other jobs being converted to public sector. The Washington Post, March 17, A07
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/16/AR2009031602720_pf.html

2 Renzi, Fred, Lieutenant Colonel. (2006). Networds: Terra Incognita and the Case for Ethnographic Intelligence. Military Review, Sept-Oct. http://www.diigo.com/cached? url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.army.mil%2Fprofessional writing%2Fvolumes%2 Fvolume4%2Fdecember_ 2006%2F12_06_1.; Delp, Benjamin T. (2008). Ethnographic Intelligence (ETHINT) and Cultural Intelligence (CULINT): Employing under-utilized strategic intelligence gathering disciplines for more effective diplomatic and military planning. IIIA Technical Paper 08-02. Institute for Infrastructure and Information Assurance, James Madison University, April. http://www.box.net/shared/ha5x74mccc; Flynn, Michael T., Major General; Captain Matt Pottinger; and, Paul D. Batchelor. (2010). Fixing Intel: A Blueprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan. Center for a New American Security, January.http://www.box.net/shared/9yudnxm9xg; Naquin, Doug. (2007). Remarks by Doug Naquin, Director, Open Source Center. CIRA Newsletter, 32 (4) Winter.http://www.box.net/shared/xy7tlnmb5e; see also a growing list of papers and reports that tie HTS to intelligence work, understood on the many different levels of “intelligence”: http://www.diigo.com/user/openanthropology/HTS%20intelligence

3 http://www.diigo.com/cached?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.linkedin.
com%2Fpub%2Fkari-kelton%2F15%2F530%2F876

4 http://zeroanthropology.net/2009/02/26/some-breaking-news-on-the-human-terrain-system-death-threats/

5 http://www.diigo.com/cached?url=http://www.linkedin.com/pub/king-charlie-col-r/a/175/916

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Research for this report was done in part with the aid of references from the writings of John Stanton and Roberto J. González, as well as additional independent research. Further updates were produced with the assistance of Benjamin Hirschfield and Roberto J. González.

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First, this is the complete list of companies compiled to date:

(1) Alpha Ten Technologies, Inc.
(2) Aptima, Inc.
(3) Archimedes
(4) Ascend Intelligence (General Dynamics C4 Systems)
(5) BAE Systems
(6) Booz Allen Hamilton
(7) Careerstone Group
(8) Connecting Cultures
(9) Echota Technologies Corporation
(10) Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation
(11) Glevum Associates
(12) K3 Enterprises
(13) Lincoln Group
(14) MASY Group
(15) McNeil Technologies
(16) MITRE
(17) Monitor 360
(18) MTC Technologies
(19) MZM, Inc.
(20) NEK Advanced Securities Group, Inc.
(21) Northrop Grumman Corporation
(22) Overwatch Systems
(23) RAND Corporation
(24) RTI International
(25) SAIC
(26) SCIA Solutions LLC
(27) Sensor Technologies (ManTech International Corporation)
(28) USI Inc.
(29) Wexford Group – CACI
(30) CLI Solutions
(31) Walsingham Group
(32) Integrated Training Solutions
(33) i2 and ESRI
(34) DevelopMental Labs Inc. (DMLI)
(35) Lockheed Martin
(36) CGI
(37) AEROTEK

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A Breakdown of Private Corporations’ Human Terrain Activities

What follows below are notes and extracts from published reports on the corporations listed, particularly in connection with their human terrain work, and links to sources and the companies’ webpages.

(1) Alpha Ten Technologies, Inc.

http://www.alphaten.com

From Roberto González: “After Robert Gates replaced Donald Rumsfeld as Defense Secretary, there was a boom in funding for projects focused on human terrain research and “culture-centric” warfare, and this attracted dozens of companies from the military-industrial complex-BAE Systems, Aptima Corporation, MITRE, the RAND Corporation, Wexford Group, MTC Technologies, NEK Advanced Securities Group, and Alpha Ten to name a few.”
http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html


(2) Aptima, Inc.: Human-Centered Engineering

http://www.aptima.com

“Effectively countering this new enemy requires a shift in strategy and tactics to focus on the ‘human terrain’ – the territory that Aptima knows best. Our unique and innovative approach couples social science principles with rigorous quantitative, computational methods to provide our customers with enhanced capabilities to optimize the Blue layer, defeat the Red layer, and influence the Green layer” (http://74.125.113.132/search?q=cache:XSCn4bmG1hIJ:www.aptima.com/domains.php%3Fdomain_id%3D1+%22aptima%22+human+terrain).

Kari Kelton on LinkedIn (http://www.linkedin.com/pub/kari-kelton/15/530/876) who served as Technical Director / Assistant Director of Assessment at Human Terrain System, US Army TRADOC, also served as Director of National Security Solutions at Aptima, Inc.

Aptima, together with MITRE, won a $4.5 million contract for “Mapping the Human Terrain” (MAP-HT):

“The Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) validated the capability need of MAP-HT JCTD as an FY-07 new start. The outcome of MAP-HT is to develop an integrated, open source, spatially/relationally/temporally referenced human terrain data collection and visualization toolkit to support BCT/RCTs in understanding human terrain. The objective is to deploy MAP-HT toolkit to Joint, Interagency, Intergovernmental, and Multinational (JIMM) elements (e.g. USAID, DEA, Coalition Partners). MAP-HT will provide a joint common relevant picture of the human terrain for use by tactical elements, operational commanders, theater planners, interagency organizations, and coalition partners. The fundamental problem addressed by the MAP-HT JCTD is to provide an integrated capability (organization, methods, tools) to the Joint, Service, or Inter-agencies that will effectively collect/consolidate, visualize, and understand open source socio-cultural (“green data”) information that will assist Commanders in understanding the ‘human terrain’ in which they operate. This basic understanding will help to reduced IED incidents via improved situational awareness of the human terrain by using ‘green layer data/unclassified’ information to understand key population points to win the ‘will and legitimacy’ fights and surface the insurgent IED networks. This will also increase the socio-cultural knowledge base for operational units and will increase the dissemination of current information to trainers and the intelligence community. The overall project context for MAP-HT is development and deployment ‘by, through, and with’ deployed units in contact. MAP-HT will directly support joint and combined operations. In addition to Army support, the US Marine Corps sees substantial merit in an institutionalized human terrain capability. The key to success in this endeavor is to stop the loss of human terrain data during unit rotations. To do so, a capability (people, process, and tools) must be further developed to provide a means for commanders and their supporting operations sections to collect data on human terrain, create, store, and disseminate information from this data, and use the resulting understanding as an element of combat power. While information and SME support are the primary MAP-HT thrusts, development and integration work will also be performed to allow commanders to visualize cultural information in geospatial and social network contexts. Compliant with the Joint Force Generation cycle, MAP-HT will also support training commands that prepare warfighters for deployment. USEUCOM has included this in their Roadmap, and is also included in the DOD Irregular Warfare Roadmap.
• Lead Service: US Army
• User Sponsor and OM: USCENTCOM
• USSOCOM, USEUCOM, USJFCOM
• Technical Manager: US Army ERDC-TEC
• Technical Agents: US Army TRADOC-DCSINT, USMC TECOM, USSOCOM
• Transition Mgr: DCGS-A; DCGS-MC; DCGS-SOF;SOCOM SOAL PEO IIS
• Industry: MITRE, Aptima
• FY 2007 Planned Output: Spiral .5 and Spiral 1 – Develop baseline for MAP-HT Toolkit, Develop ID and MP. Focus on continued evolution of the prototype MAP-HT Tool, enhancement of relevant data collection and analysis/visualization tools, and development of doctrine and TTPs.
• FY08 Planned Output: Spiral 2 will refine the doctrinal implications of Spiral 1, advance the core knowledge management tools, add capabilities in knowledge discovery and advanced”
http://74.125.113.132/search?q=cache:HskHsbJwf6YJ:www.dtic.mil/descriptivesum/Y2008/OSD/0603648D8Z.pdf+
%22aptima%22+%22human+terrain%22&cd=30&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca&client=firefox-a

See also Aptima’s published work: Cultural Agent Model to Predict inHabitant Opinion Reactions (CAMPHOR): Building and Applying a Dynamic Human Terrain Map: http://www.dodccrp.org/events/13th_iccrts_2008/CD/html/papers/156.pdf — Authors: Yuri Levchuk, Aptima Inc., 1726 M Street, N.W., Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036,Phone: (202) 842-1548×323; Alexander Lubyansky, Aptima Inc., 1726 M Street, N.W., Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036; Phone: (202) 842-1548x 338

And see Aptima’s “The Human Element in Intelligence Analysis”:
http://www.aptima.com/case_studies.php?case_study_id=3

On 02 July, 2009, William Salter of Aptima, Inc. (12 Gill Street Suite 1400, Woburn, MA 01801, Phone: (781) 496-2428) was awarded a Defense contract for Topic# OSD 08-CR7: “Cultural Awareness for Military Operations (CAMO)”:

“Abstract: Aptima is proposing an innovative approach to developing relevant, effective military cultural training. The Cultural Awareness for Military Operations (CAMO) proof-of-concept prototype will be based on theoretically grounded and empirically validated pedagogy. It will result in a serious game built on the Delta3D game engine. Delta3D is a key development component of the Deployable Virtual Training Environment (DVTE), a laptop based training platform already adopted by the Marine Corps. CAMO will thus be on a smooth technical transition path. It will adapt to learner knowledge, background, and progress, incorporating proven training measurement technology, already effectively applied in the DVTE environment, that greatly facilitates the design, construction, and collection of valid measures. CAMO will contain accurate and relevant cultural content, with Phase I development focusing on general cultural awareness and skills. This will lay the groundwork for further elaboration in Phase II and for developing culture-specific training as well. It will be grounded in both academic research (ensured by our collaborator, Professor Lynn Smith-Lovin of Duke University) and detailed familiarity with military training requirements, ensured by interactions with military subject matter experts. It will therefore address vital military requirements and should be on track for rapid transition to operational use.”
http://www.dodsbir.net/selections/abs083/osdabs083.htm
(see also video game development projects for learning the “human terrain” on that same page)

Eduardo Salas also served as a consultant to Aptima as a Principal Investigator for: “Human Terrain System (HTS) & Multicultural team training project,” Georgia Tech Research Institute (12/08 – 9/09; $522,091) – from: http://www.psych.ucf.edu/CV/Salas%20CV%20AUG%2023,%202009.pdf

From Roberto González: “After Robert Gates replaced Donald Rumsfeld as Defense Secretary, there was a boom in funding for projects focused on human terrain research and “culture-centric” warfare, and this attracted dozens of companies from the military-industrial complex-BAE Systems, Aptima Corporation, MITRE, the RAND Corporation, Wexford Group, MTC Technologies, NEK Advanced Securities Group, and Alpha Ten to name a few.”
http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html

(3) Archimedes

http://www.archimedesglobal.com

From Roberto González: “Recently, a military contract firm called Archimedes Global posted a recruitment ad for ‘socio-cultural cell’ members within the newly-established AFRICOM (US African Command). The ad calls for specialists with ‘human terrain’ expertise, among others. It’s a clear example of how human terrain has become a much broader phenomenon, now embraced by the military, industries, and research universities. Beyond the army’s HTS program, human terrain has become a growth industry.”
http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html

From http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2009/01/help-wanted-hum:

“Research and risk management firm Archimedes Global, Inc. recently sent out help-wanted ads for a new ‘socio-cultural cell’ within U.S. Africa Command, the new regional military headquarters. Within two months of the contract start, the company will deploy a six-contractor team to eastern Africa….The job description states:

“USAFRICOM requires approximately 24 personnel to support the base effort. On day one of the contract, USAFRICOM requires six (6) contractor personnel to make up the first Socio-Cultural Cell and an additional six (6) contractor personnel will be required to make up the Social Scientist Research Center (SSRC).

“According to the job ad, the teams will work support AFRICOM’s Special Analysis Branch, which among other things will provide ‘operational multi-layered analysis and Joint Intelligence Preparations of the Operational Environment.’ Cells will include personnel with expertise in ‘human terrain, all-source and Geo-spatial analysis.’ A second socio-cultural cell will stand up within six months.

From http://antifascist-calling.blogspot.com/2009/11/pentagon-manhunters-americas-new-murder.html: a report by “retired Air Force Lt. Colonel George A. Crawford and published by JSOU, lends added weight to arguments by critics that the United States Government has ‘gone rogue’ and is preparing a planet-wide Operation Condor network to capture or kill imperialism’s enemies (see: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB239d/index.htm).

“Currently a senior director for Archimedes Global, Inc., Crawford boasts a résumé that includes ‘operational assignments with special operations and special activities, intelligence collection and analysis, information operations and psychological operations.’

“The shadowy firm, while short on information describing what it actually does, like many newly-minted intelligence and security outfits in Washington, is chock-a-block with retired spooks and special forces operators cashing-in on the tsunami of public funds fueling the ‘War on Terror.’

“According to their web site the company offer services such as ‘Operations and Research’ from ‘experienced, highly trained people’ who possess ‘unmatched expertise across a number of industries and focus areas.’

“In the realm of Technology, Archimedes specializes in ‘Cryptanalysis and Applied Cryptography.’ Hint, hint, this is what the National Security Agency does when it isn’t spying on the American people and building an exploitable database on dissidents destined for ‘special handling’ should the need arise (see: http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/07/23/new_churchcomm/).

“The firm’s ‘Information and Risk’ brief claims they will solve ‘the most difficult communication and risk problems by seeing over the horizon with a blend of art and science.’ And with focus areas that include ‘strategic communications, media analysis and support, crisis communications, and risk and vulnerability assessment and mitigation,’ it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to infer that those well-schooled in the dark art of psychological operations (PSYOPS) would find a friendly home at Archimedes!”

(4) Ascend Intelligence (purchased by General Dynamics C4 Systems)

Ascend was referenced by John Stanton in http://zeroanthropology.net/2010/02/09/new-details-emerge-in-salomi-hostage-case-john-stanton/. Much of what is publicly known has to do with Ascend’s development of the Tactical Ground Reporting tool (TIGR), for use in mapping the human terrain.

Ascend Intelligence (http://www.ascendintelligence.com/tigr.htm), the company behind much of TIGR [Tactical Ground Reporting], has just received a contract award of $14m, with options that will take the deal to $115m if exercised.”

See: Ascend Intelligence LLC Contract to the Army given on 11/17/2009 in support of the Military-Industrial Complex
http://www.militaryindustrialcomplex.com/contract_detail.asp?contract_id=10746

Principle Contractor: Ascend Intelligence LLC
Date of Issuance: 11/17/2009
Branch of Service: Army

Contract Details:
“Ascend Intelligence, LLC, Arlington, Va., was awarded on Nov. 16, 2009, a $14,035,223 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for the research and development, sustainment and procurement of an advanced tactical information system, a tactical ground reporting system of networked information systems with map based user interface.”

See: Ascend Gets DARPA Contract to Supply TIGR Multimedia Reporting System
http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/Ascend-Gets-DARPA-Contract-to-Supply-TIGR-Multimedia-Reporting-System-05954
published on 17 November 2009:

“Ascend Intelligence in Arlington, VA received a $14 million cost-plus-fixed-fee contract from the US Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) to supply the tactical ground reporting (TIGR) system for US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan (see: http://www.darpa.mil/news_images/tigr2.html).

“First tested in Iraq in 2007, TIGR is a multimedia reporting system for US troops at the patrol level, allowing users to collect and share information to improve situational awareness and to facilitate collaboration and information analysis among junior officers. TIGR complements existing reporting systems that focus on the needs of users at battalion or brigade level and above.

“TIGR has a map-based user interface and supports multimedia and GPS input, as well as distributed search and caching capability. It uses software that runs on a laptop and taps into multiple databases containing intelligence about a particular area…

“TIGR’s graphical, map-referenced user interface allows multimedia data such as voice recordings, digital photos, GPS tracks to be collected and searched.

“According to DARPA, TIGR provides the following capabilities:

‘TIGR enhances local knowledge – Local knowledge is hard-won and is critical to effective operations. TIGR helps ground soldiers collect information on key infrastructure, landmarks and terrain. Photos of key locations can be captured into TIGR, geo-referenced, and displayed as map overlays. Such data also serve as a navigation aid in the land where there are no street names or numbers. Overlays of routes, critical infrastructure, tribal areas and ethnic maps, recent attacks and recent changes in the terrain are all used to enhance soldier knowledge.’

“TIGR is also used to capture and share information on human terrain. Meetings with religious leaders, encounters with local villagers or business owners can be recorded and shared in TIGR.

TIGR tracks dynamic changes – The data in TIGR are dynamic and easily updated. While infrastructure is usually viewed as static, the reality is that battlefield terrain and infrastructure is dynamic – new structures appear, bridges are destroyed, new obstacles appear along roads. TIGR manages this dynamic tactical landscape using before/after photos and updated imagery to provide the most up-to-date views of the battlespace.

“TIGR assists the unit rotation process – During the regular RIP-TOA (Relief in Place – Transfer of Authority) process, TIGR can be used to transfer the key historical and contextual information to the new unit rotating into the Area of Operation. Instead of reviewing a stack of Powerpoint or Word files, new units can start the rotation process by reviewing past and ongoing activities in the areas of interest.”

Product Details – Tactical Ground Reporting – Overview
http://74.125.113.132/search?q=cache:wnjnBydPNqEJ:www.ascendintelligence.com/+http://www.ascendintelligence.com/
&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca&client=firefox-a

“Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR):

Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR) is an information-centric application that provides data collection and reporting capabilities to army users, enabling company and platoon-level knowledge sharing. TIGR provides a map-based user interface enhanced for military application and supports multi-media and GPS input as well as distributed search and caching capability.

The highly intuitive visualizations allow soldiers to quickly review all available intelligence including places, events, people, and objects for efficient and timely battlefield awareness and increased combat effectiveness.”

A news report by Lewis Page, titled ‘Google Earth for the Iraq insurgency’ gets $115m [printer-friendly] • The Registerhttp://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/11/24/tigr_google_earth_iraq_war/print.html) published on 24 November 2009, states about TIGR: (

“The system in question is named TIGR, for Tactical Ground Reporting, and it has been described as ‘Google Maps for the Iraq counterinsurgency’. It simply offers an easy way to link information to locations and times.

“Mostly at the moment, if Western forces go out on patrol in a hostile area, they have very little idea what happened to those before them. Reports, pictures and so on filed by their predecessors will be accessible to intelligence officers at battalion HQ and up, but even these staff desk-jockeys will struggle to find information related to a particular location.

“The idea now is that a noncommissioned or junior officer about to take out a patrol – or go anywhere or do anything – would put his proposed route into TIGR. All previous events of interest which had occurred within, say, 300m either side of the route would pop up: ambushes, roadside bombings, school visits, talks with community figures. Many of these icons would link through, not just to written reports but to pictures or other information collected by previous troops working in the area – just like Google Earth.

“TIGR has already been to war. It was in the hands of some US troops as long ago as 2007, and as of last year there were 1500 small-unit leaders using it. The system has received rave reviews from returning troops.”

From General Dynamics C4 Systems – Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR)
http://www.gdc4s.com/featurettes/detail.cfm?featureid=53

“DARPA-sponsored Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR) Software Systems now part of General Dynamics C4 Systems’ Battle Command Offering The Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR) software system sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and well embraced by the U.S. Army for its ability to facilitate tactical information collection and dissemination, has now become part of General Dynamics C4 Systems.

“The TIGR application provides soldiers and commanders with an effective tool for sharing information about adversaries. The application allows users to access a computer database of maps, text and multimedia files gathered while on patrol and to pass along knowledge about places, events, people and objects for increased combat effectiveness.

“On Jan. 8, 2010, General Dynamics acquired TIGR and other assets from Ascend Intelligence, LLC, an Arlington, Va.-based provider of software for military mission planning and execution. As a result, approximately 40 employees who worked for Ascend Intelligence are now part of General Dynamics C4 Systems.

“‘Ascend Intelligence has produced a game-changing decision-aid in the prosecution of irregular warfare,” said Chris Marzilli, president of General Dynamics C4 Systems. ‘TIGR has proven valuable to soldiers on patrol and to their commanders. We are committed to leveraging all the resources necessary to see that TIGR is fully supported and rapidly integrated into the Army’s battle command offering.’

“Commenting about the continuation in developing and fielding the TIGR application, Chris added, ‘The addition of this capability significantly increases the relevance of the General Dynamics command and control portfolio by providing valuable information to the front-line soldier.’

“‘We look forward to establishing a long-term relationship with DARPA and to expanding our existing Army relationships to support and sustain the growth of TIGR,’ said Manny Mora, vice president and general manager of Battle Management for General Dynamics C4 Systems. ‘By adding TIGR to our current Army Battle Command portfolio, we are making a strong move in our positioning to fill out the needs of battle command from Corps to the individual soldier.’


(5) United States – BAE Systems

http://www.baesystems.com/WorldwideLocations/UnitedStates

BAE Systems remains involved as a contractor for HTS. One of its primary roles is to recruit people for HTS – see: Find Jobs – Human Terrain System Social Scientist – PPL Jobs in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas – BAE Systemshttp://www.careerbuilder.com/JobSeeker/Jobs/JobDetails.aspx?job_did=J8A0TR6TZ9Q5VC299VJ&siteid=CBJUJU_Feed) reproduced below. The final end date for BAE’s current HTS contract is 2016 (http://www.geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/mgt-archives/107-mgt-2009-volume-7-issue-2/930-mapping-the-human-terrain.html). (

Sample Job Ad from BAE Systems:

“The Human Terrain System (HTS) is an Army program designed to embed socio-cultural experts with tactical commanders to integrate socio-cultural understanding into the military decision-making process. Human Terrain Teams help military commanders reduce the amount of lethal force used, with a corresponding reduction in military and civilian casualties. Allowing the commander to make decisions that will increase the security of the area, allow other organizations (local and international) to more effectively provide aid and restore the infrastructure, ensure that US efforts are culturally sensitive, promote economic development, and help the local population more effectively communicate their needs to US and Coalition forces. HTS teams act as advisers to Army Brigades and Marine Corps Regiments. The teams will not engage in combat missions, nor does it collect intelligence. Team will analyze data from a variety of sources operating in theatre (e.g. conventional military patrols, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, civil affairs units, special forces).

Responsibilities of Human Terrain System Social Scientist includes:

“Working as a social scientist on a Human Terrain Team offers a rare and unique opportunity to help reshape the military’s execution of their mission by offering them a much greater appreciation of existing socio-cultural realities and sensitivities in the countries where they are operating.

“This position also offers an opportunity to develop new methods for data collection and analysis. Social scientists will be able to write about their experiences and otherwise contribute to the academic literature in their field after participation, subject to standard security review.

Candidate will undergo a 4-month training program at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, including orientation to the military/deployment environment, in-depth country briefings, and multi-disciplinary social science concepts and methods. The actual deployment lasts from 6 to 9 months.

“Required Skills

  • Masters or doctoral degree in Social Science (Anthropology, Sociology, International Relations, Political Science or related field)
  • 1+ years qualitative or quantitative field research outside of home country (request writing samples and research methodology)
  • Must be able to obtain and maintain a Security Clearance
  • Comprehensive physical exam within the last year
  • Ability to travel to Afghanistan and/or Iraq
  • Team player with ability to work with all levels of professionals from other disciplines
  • An open-minded attitude towards a variety of concepts and methods
  • Willingness to work with the military
  • Anthropological or Sociological Field Research experience in the Middle East or Afghanistan
  • Foreign Language capability in Arabic or Dari
  • Experience working with US government or military

See also: Human Terrain System – Seminar Leader Job in Fort Leavenworth 66027, Kansas US
http://jobview.monster.com/Human-Terrain-System-Seminar-Leader-Job-Fort-Leavenworth-KS-US-84940674.aspx

CorpWatch finds BAE Systems involved in domestic spying:

From http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14821:

“The intelligence-sharing system to be managed by the NAO will rely heavily on private contractors including Boeing, BAE Systems, L-3 Communications (http://www.crocodyl.org/wiki/l_3_communications) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). These companies already provide technology and personnel to U.S. agencies involved in foreign intelligence, and the NAO greatly expands their markets. Indeed, at an intelligence conference in San Antonio, Texas, last month, the titans of the industry were actively lobbying intelligence officials to buy products specifically designed for domestic surveillance.”

From http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14821:

“three employees of BAE Systems Inc. who had just returned from a three-week tour of Iraq and Afghanistan with the NGA demonstrated a new software package called SOCET GXP. (BAE Systems Inc. is the U.S. subsidiary of the UK-based BAE, the third-largest military contractor in the world.)

“GXP uses Google Earth software as a basis for creating three-dimensional maps that U.S. commanders and soldiers use to conduct intelligence and reconnaissance missions. Eric Bruce, one of the BAE employees back from the Middle East, said his team trained U.S. forces to use the GXP software ‘to study routes for known terrorist sites’ as well as to locate opium fields. ‘Terrorists use opium to fund their war,’ he said. Bruce also said his team received help from Iraqi citizens in locating targets. ‘Many of the locals can’t read maps, so they tell the analysts, “there is a mosque next to a hill,”’ he explained.

“Bruce said BAE’s new package is designed for defense forces and intelligence agencies, but can also be used for homeland security and by highway departments and airports. Earlier versions of the software were sold to the U.S. Army’s Topographic Engineering Center, where it has been used to collect data on more than 12,000 square kilometers of Iraq, primarily in urban centers and over supply routes.

“Another new BAE tool displayed in San Antonio was a program called GOSHAWK, which stands for ‘Geospatial Operations for a Secure Homeland – Awareness, Workflow, Knowledge.’ It was pitched by BAE as a tool to help law enforcement and state and local emergency agencies prepare for, and respond to, ‘natural disasters and terrorist and criminal incidents’.”


(6) Booz Allen Hamilton: A Strategy and Technology Consulting Firm

http://www.boozallen.com

Like BAE Systems, BHA recruits and trains for HTS: http://www.teleportjobs.com/view_post.asp?pid=613047. Among those it seeks to hire are people with intelligence experience.

A HTS Job description by Booz Allen Hamilton
https://bah.taleo.net/careersection/10020/jobdetail.ftl?lang=en&job=01082034

Human Terrain Analysis and Training Program Lead

Description

Key Role:
Manage the development of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA) curriculum. Supervise and develop all curricula and monitor and coordinate HTA training programs, meeting schedules, and learning objectives. Monitor and ensure that the curriculum meets standards by facilitating the development of course work and implementation of course evaluation. Conduct pre- and post-instruction surveys to improve curriculum for future implementations and make modifications to improve program effectiveness. Coordinate and oversee curriculum and lesson plan design, development, and instruction. This position is located in Springfield, VA.

Qualifications

Basic Qualifications:
-10+ years of experience in the intelligence community
-Knowledge of Human Terrain application
-TS/SCI clearance required
-MS degree required

Additional Qualifications:
-Experience as an instructor or trainer
-Knowledge of ISD methodology
-MS degree in Cultural Geography or Anthropology preferred

Clearance:

Applicants selected will be subject to a security investigation and may need to meet eligibility requirements for access to classified information; TS/SCI clearance is required.

Integrating the full range of consulting capabilities, Booz Allen is the one firm that helps clients solve their toughest problems, working by their side to help them achieve their missions. Booz Allen is committed to delivering results that endure.

(7) Careerstone Group : Learn Today. Lead Tomorrow.

http://www.careerstonegroup.com


(8) Connecting Cultures

http://www.connecting-cultures.net/new/about.html

“Recognizing that cultural competency, the awareness, knowledge and skills to communicate across diverse and multicultural settings is essential. More than ever, building relations through cultural understanding is an imperative to enhance your effectiveness and sustainability. The impressions you make and success you reach is founded upon mastery of your cultural capabilities for international assignments and in diverse settings. Connecting Cultures is uniquely equipped to provide these trainings, specializing in American and Arab cultures, Islam, and the people of the Middle East.”

Connecting Cultures
http://www.connecting-cultures.net/new/services.html

“Building Cultural Competency: Communicating, Working, and Building Relations with Iraqis allows the reader to easily reference information on Iraqi history, Islam, verbal and nonverbal methods of communicating, as well as other pertinent information on interacting with Iraqis. There is nothing more mission-critical than understanding local culture for our soldiers, diplomats and other Americans.

Connecting Cultures: Military Clients
http://www.connecting-cultures.net/new/clients.html#army


(9) Echota Technologies Corporation

http://www.echotatech.com

Guy Compton (http://www.linkedin.com/in/guycompton) of Echota Technologies was contracted

As Human Terrain Consultant from January 2007 through March 2007. Compton “consulted on the development of the Human Terrain System (HTS) Program. Helped develop SOPs and product templates for the deploying Human Terrain Teams. Assisted in predicting/trouble shooting potential problems with the data bases involved (specifically MAP_HT). Developed a comprehensive list of potential data bases to be harvested in combat theaters in order to facilitate program. Advised the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence on training, deployment, and employment of the HTS Human Terrain Teams.”

Zenia Helbig, former HTS social scientist, has gone on record criticizing the role of Echota Technologies:

“Faulty recruiting efforts were exacerbated by a training program that ranged from nonexistent to poorly conceived. Echota Technologies Corporation, the company initially subcontracted to provide training for the program, hired a training team composed almost entirely of previous Special Forces personnel with no academic background and no specialization in the regions in question. The quality of these trainers is perhaps best illustrated by one who, upon my arrival, expressed frustrated disbelief at what an expert in Islam might possibly have to contribute to the mission.” (See http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:L7nbcyuMT_wJ:pogoarchives.org/m/wi/hts-statement-20080328.pdf+echota+army+human+terrain&hl=en&gl=ca&sig=AHIEtbRVC1d6J_kPcsxD2id00leCgHGiRw)

(10) Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation

http://www.gtarc.gatech.edu/

See especially the HTS website from Georgia Tech

Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation, the research firm of Georgia Tech, recently won a contract from the U.S. Army for the Human Terrain System (http://www.militaryindustrialcomplex.com/contract_detail.asp?contract_id=10549):

Date of Issuance: 10/9/2009

Branch of Service: Army

Contract Details:

Georgia Tech Applied Research Corp., Atlanta, Ga., was awarded on Sept. 30, 2009 a $7,820,869 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for the Human Terrain System Project used to train personnel to deploy on human terrain teams and human terrain analysis teams in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Work is to be performed Leavenworth, Kan., (65 percent), Atlanta, Ga., (30 percent), and Oyster Point, Va., (5 percent) with an estimated completion date of Aug. 31, 2010. One bid solicited with one bid received. U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., is the contracting activity (W31P4Q-08-D-0006).

Total Contract Value: $7,820,869

Eduardo Salas – who also served as a consultant to Aptima [see entry for Aptima above] – was a Principal Investigator for a Human Terrain System (HTS) & Multicultural team training project with Georgia Tech Research Institute (from December 2008 to September 2009, for a grant totaling $522,091) (http://www.psych.ucf.edu/CV/Salas%20CV%20AUG%2023,%202009.pdf)

Dr. Margaret L. Loper, the Chief Scientist for Georgia Tech Research Institute’s Information Technology & Telecommunications Laboratory, works on projects that include the Human Terrain System education program (from https://www.tena-sda.org/download/attachments/6750/IITSEC-Program-Guide-2009.pdf).

Lastly, “the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is leading an SME Network consortium leveraging several national cultural academic institutions as well as recognized experts in cultural terrain,” [Colonel Daniel] Wolfe [HTS Technology Director] said. “GTRI is implementing a new, robust open system Website, in the dot-edu domain, for this vital program element. This venue is expected to stand up in mid-summer.”
http://www.geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/mgt-archives/107-mgt-2009-volume-7-issue-2/930-mapping-the-human-terrain.html


(11) Glevum Associates

http://www.glevumassociates.com

Glevum Associates, a private subcontractor in the Human Terrain System (HTS), is run by Andrew Garfield (formerly with the Lincoln Group—see below) and Alicia Boyd (formerly with Lincoln Group and JIEDDO—see below). Glevum is reportedly scheduled to receive over $20 million (USD) from the HTS money trough to conduct polling/research in Iraq over the next year [the prime contractor was Sensor Technologies International (acquired by ManTech), see entry below] (from: http://cryptome.info/0001/hts-waste.htm).

Glevum has also been in the news for its recent pre-election poll in Afghanistan, prepared in part by HTS’ disgraced Milan Sturgis – see:

Glevum Associates: Afghan Poll
http://www.glevumassociates.com/files/ElectionPollExsumDosfinal.pdf

On its website Glevum has a section titled, “Navigating the Human Terrain—Essential Knowledge” that reads as follows: “In order to achieve success in Counter Insurgency and Peace Support operations, the U.S. Government in particular and the International Community in general, must develop an intimate understanding of the complexities and nuances of the society and culture that is being engaged. The same need for detailed societal and cultural knowledge is also true for business development in emerging markets and the successful implementation of humanitarian aid and development projects. If applied correctly, Human Terrain understanding can provide a competitive edge and can be the difference between success and failure” (http://www.glevumassociates.com/content/NavHuman.html).

Finally, John Stanton reported that HTS’ “Knowledge Management (KM) Directorate is headed by [Colonel] Dan [Daniel] Wolfe [HTS Technology Director], President/CEO of Universal Solutions, Inc (USI) located in Virginia. The other contractor involved was Ascend Intelligence (recently purchased by General Dynamics C4 Systems (GDC4S). Bradley Green is the new Project Manager for GDC4S/HTS. Observers allege that Wolfe redirects “a lot of program money to his own company.” For example, the SSRA work is contracted through him and then subcontracted to Glevum Associates, so Wolfe profits from that contract too. Wolfe apparently advises Steve Fondacaro (HTS program manager) on all the IT & KM related matters” (http://zeroanthropology.net/2010/02/09/new-details-emerge-in-salomi-hostage-case-john-stanton).


(12) K3 Enterprises

http://www.k3-enterprises.com/home.html

K3 Enterprises states on its Linkedin profile that it provides “Integration, Training, Sustainment, Test and Evaluation, with Mapping Human Terrain support” and has won “USACAPOC Civil Information Management (CIM) contracts” (http://www.linkedin.com/companies/k3-enterprises-inc.?trk=co_search_results&goback=.cps_1266714847536_1). K3 also indicates that it “provides a wide range of Civil Information Management Training Courses using various Asymmetric Software packages for the operational and tactical Civil Affairs Forces and Human Terrain Teams” (http://www.k3-enterprises.com/training.html). K3 instructors have been recruited from the following fields: “U.S. Special Operations Forces, U.S. Special Operations Communications, U.S. Special Operations Information Technology, U.S. Military Intelligence, U.S. Federal, State and Local Police Officers.” In addition, “K3 instructors have served and trained around the world including Iraq, Afghanistan, Southern Philippines, Northern Africa, Kosovo, The Far East, Central America, South America and more.” The company’s site says “They are combat veterans with superb experience in civil information management” (http://www.k3-enterprises.com/training.html). K3 produces a two-week course that “provides an understanding of the analytical software used to conduct civil reconnaissance. The four week course incorporates the two week version plus expands on current methodologies and develops analytical products based real world open source information” (http://www.k3-enterprises.com/training.html. In addition, K3 provides critical “Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) Training” that includes an “Asymmetrical Software Tutorial” and “Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, and Information (PMESII)” (http://www.k3-enterprises.com/services.html).


(13) Lincoln Group

http://web.archive.org/web/20070908101554/http://www.lincolngroup.com/?q=datagatheringandanalysis

According to the page above, under the heading of “Data Gathering and Analysis,” we are told that “Lincoln Group can design and execute polls, surveys, structured and semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and research studies. We also specialize in cultural terrain studies with a special emphasis on tribal and social network mapping.” This is virtually identical to the work now done by Glevum Associates, with which HTS also has a tight relationship in terms of overlapping personnel. Lincoln says, “Our on-the-ground personnel are skilled in data collection, knowledgeable of the unique cultures involved, and are experienced working in dangerous and volatile locations.” Moreover, “our teams provide: Human Terrain Mapping.”

See also: Another Profile in Propaganda: Laurie Adler, U.S. Army’s “Human Terrain System” http://zeroanthropology.net/2008/08/07/another-profile-in-propaganda-laurie-adler-us-armys-human-terrain-system/


(14) MASY Group

http://masygroup.com/security/

Like BAE Systems and Booz Allen Hamilton, the service provided by the MASY group involves hiring “Human Terrain Cultural Analysts” – see: http://www.indeed.com/job/Human-Terrain-Cultural-Analyst-at-The-MASY-Group-LLC-in-Washington,-DC-9c52ef57ccff2124


(15) McNeil Technologies

http://www.mcneiltech.com

McNeil Technologies is interesting in part because of the personal relationship tying it to the Human Terrain System via Steve Rotkoff – see Steve Rotkoff relationship map – Muckety
(http://www.muckety.com/Steve-Rotkoff/8071.muckety). On 30 September 2009, the U.S. Army’s Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) revealed that McNeil would provide subcontractor support to Human Terrain Teams (http://www.mcneiltech.com/News/News.htm). News of the McNeil-HTS ties are referenced by John Stanton (http://zeroanthropology.net/2010/01/22/john-stanton-the-new-face-of-the-human-terrain-system/), and the fact that Steve Rotkoff is employed by McNeil and HTS, is also referenced by John Stanton (http://cryptome.info/0001/hts-madness.htm). See also: http://cryptome.info/0001/hts-cleanup.htm and http://cryptome.info/0001/hts-bailout.htm.

(16) MITRE—Applying Systems Engineering and Advanced Technology to Critical National Problems

http://www.mitre.org

Roberto González, in “Phoenix Rising” wrote: “According to former human terrain team member Zenia Helbig, teams use a software package developed by the Mitre Corporation called Mapping Human Terrain (MAP-HT). Kipp and his colleagues described MAP-HT as ‘an automated database and presentation tool that allows teams to gather, store, manipulate, and provide cultural data from hundreds of categories.’ The Secretary of Defense’s 2007 budget justification describes MAP-HT as ‘a means for commanders and their supporting operations sections to collect data on human terrain, create, store, and disseminate information from this data, and use the resulting information as an element of combat power.’ It also allocates $4.5 million for MAP-HT between 2007 and 2009” (http://www.zcommunications.org/a-phoenix-rising-by-roberto-j-gonz-lez) – in this regard, see the entry for Aptima above as well.

Roberto González also noted: “After Robert Gates replaced Donald Rumsfeld as Defense Secretary, there was a boom in funding for projects focused on human terrain research and ‘culture-centric’ warfare, and this attracted dozens of companies from the military-industrial complex-BAE Systems, Aptima Corporation, MITRE, the RAND Corporation, Wexford Group, MTC Technologies, NEK Advanced Securities Group, and Alpha Ten to name a few” (http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html).

Speaking of “The Social Soldier,” and what is called “winning hearts and minds,” the MITRE Corporation states: “The way in which wars are waged continues to change. In the current asymmetric warfare environment, enemy threats and tactics change rapidly. To address these rapid changes, soldiers in the field require collaboration tools that allow them to locate and interact with their peers, exchange information, and access institutional expertise in a timely manner. Part of modern warfare also involves winning the battle of public opinion, which is often as important as winning on the battlefield. In this human terrain battlefield, it is much more than warfighter-to-warfighter interaction that is important. Additional tools are needed to allow the military to interact effectively with the population and to be able to marshal local and global opinion in such a way that neutralizes enemy attempts to sway sympathy toward their cause” (http://www.mitre.org/news/envision/spring_09/musman.html)

MITRE also boasts that it is “working with the Commands to address the insurgency problem on a number of fronts. We staff special data mining cells that provide direct support to operational units. We prototyped capabilities for ground units to increase understanding of the tribal relationships and other aspects of the ‘human terrain’ in Iraq” (from page 7 of this document: http://www.mitre.org/about/annual_reports/mitre_2005_annual.pdf).

For more on MITRE and human terrain – see page 9 here: http://www.mitre.org/news/events/exchange08/3753.pdf, and see page 3 here: http://www.ndu.edu/CTNSP/Strat_Com/2008%20Strategic%20Comm%20at%20NDU%20%20Maybury%20June%202008.pdf


(17) Monitor 360 – Consulting Services for Governments, NGOs and Corporations

http://360.monitor.com/index.html

(18) MTC Technologies

http://www.mtctech.ca

MTC Technologies, a Canadian company based in Mississauga, Ontario, speaks of the “Human Terrain System (HTS) Teams” in a grammatically bizarre newsletter entry:

“Working towards addressing shortcomings in cultural knowledge and capabilities MTC, working with the Foreign Military Studies Office at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is overseeing the creation and direction of the Human Terrain System (HTS) Teams. So that U.S. forces can operate more effectively in the human terrain in which local communities live and function, HTS will provide deployed our soldiers direct social-science support in the form of ethnographic and social research, cultural information research, and social data analysis that can be employed as part of the our program to bring greater cultural understanding, more intelligent decision making, and reduce the level of insurgency and violence.” MTC provides a brief description of some of the individual positions: “The Social Scientists and Cultural Analysts are members of the Human Terrain System (HTS) that will collect and analyze data to obtain cultural and political awareness in order to sustain and foster stabilization. The HTS project is designed to improve the gathering, interpretation, understanding, operational application and sharing of local population knowledge at the BCT and RCT and Division levels.” The position requires an “MA/PhD in Cultural Anthropologist/Sociologist/Political Scientist/International Relations or related fields from an accredited U.S., Canadian, British or Australian University” (see page 10: http://www.aataweb.org/newsletter/february2008.pdf).

Roberto González noted: “After Robert Gates replaced Donald Rumsfeld as Defense Secretary, there was a boom in funding for projects focused on human terrain research and “culture-centric” warfare, and this attracted dozens of companies from the military-industrial complex-BAE Systems, Aptima Corporation, MITRE, the RAND Corporation, Wexford Group, MTC Technologies, NEK Advanced Securities Group, and Alpha Ten to name a few (http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html).


(19) MZM, Inc. (Veritas Capital)

http://web.archive.org/web/20050211002244/http://www.mzminc.com

The web page for MZM has expired (hence the archived link above) since the company was purchased by Veritas Capital (another company in this list whose web page consists of the name of the company, a graphic, and an address – and nothing more).

Under “MZM, Inc. – Products & Services,” the company stated that it sought to satisfy the Department of Defense’s interest in “Information Operations (IO),” i.e.: “Those actions taken to affect an adversary’s information and information systems while defending one’s own information and information systems. Information operations also include actions taken in a noncombat or ambiguous situation to protect one’s own information and information systems as well as those taken to influence target information and information systems. (From Joint Policy 1-02).” MZM said its aim was to bolster “the network-centric environment,” which is “dramatically increasing both the richness and reach of information that can be made available to commanders and their geographically dispersed forces in the information space. These attributes extend as well to the civilian populations of the forces engaged in conflict, creating new challenges and opportunities. Networking allows organizations to operate in a new competitive space. This allows them to create and leverage an information advantage to generate increased value, but this makes systems vulnerable to exploitation and disruption by potential adversaries” (http://web.archive.org/web/20040612234147/www.mzminc.com/defaultps.cfm?secpagesid=4).

on all forms of terrorist activities”MZM also indicated that it provided “a wide range of consulting services to homeland security clients that complement the company’s expertise in intelligence operations, counterintelligence, systems and data management, program management, national security, intellectual and technical development.” MZM added: “Following the September 11 terrorist attacks, MZM rapidly expanded its homeland security efforts to provide unique, niche capabilities to assist people preparing for current and future terrorist activities and attacks”. MZM also stated its field was “Nontraditional Information Collection”: “Helping law enforcement agencies, at all levels, develop the intellectual capabilities, organizational methods, processes and technological edge to perceive, collect and report” (http://web.archive.org/web/20040612233343/www.mzminc.com/defaultps.cfm?secpagesid=1).

On 30 September 2005, Veritas Capital, “a leading private equity firm focused on the defense and federal sectors,” announced that it had “completed the previously announced agreement to purchase selected assets of MZM, Inc.” (see http://www.veritascapital.com/view_news.asp?ID=39). According to SourceWatch MZM Inc., a leading high-tech national security firm, provided “intelligence gathering, technology and homeland security analysis and consulting for both international and domestic governments and private-sector clients.” The firm also provided “consulting on political and public message strategies. Its government clients include Congress, the White House, the Defense Department, the U.S. intelligence community, the Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force and state and local governments, according to the company’s Web site.” SourceWatch noted that “MZM refused to provide any information…about its corporate structure, including names of other principals.” In addition to its Washington D.C. headquarters, MZM had field offices in Miami, Tampa, San Antonio, San Diego and Suffolk, Va., and employed about 70 people” (http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=MZM_Inc).

(20) NEK Advanced Securities Group, Inc.

http://www.nekasg.com/home/Advanced_Securities_Group.asp

Like BAE Systems, Booz Allen Hamilton, and the MASY Group above, NEK also hires for HTS. See for example: Human Terrain Teams Organization: NEK Advanced Securities Group, Inc. (http://www.eculturalresources.com/job/1008.html). It hires trainers for HTS – see: “Human Terrain Assessment (HTA) Subject Matter Expert (SME)” (posted 17 December 2009): “The Human Terrain Assessment Subject Matter Expert (SME) in the National Geospatial-Intelligence College (NGC) in Fort Belvoir, VA, is a team member with specialized skills and in-depth knowledge in the HTA discipline. The SME supports design, development, implementation and evaluation of training and education using this specialized expertise; contributes to the execution of project task plans; and assesses the implications of trends, policies and methodologies on future HTA training. Activities are conducted in support of the NGC and project team’s objectives. The SME works closely with managers, senior specialists and Task Leads” (http://www.nekasg.com/Employment/Apply.aspx?Job=236&Apply=False).

From Roberto González: “After Robert Gates replaced Donald Rumsfeld as Defense Secretary, there was a boom in funding for projects focused on human terrain research and “culture-centric” warfare, and this attracted dozens of companies from the military-industrial complex-BAE Systems, Aptima Corporation, MITRE, the RAND Corporation, Wexford Group, MTC Technologies, NEK Advanced Securities Group, and Alpha Ten to name a few” (http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html).

(21) Northrop Grumman Corporation – A Leader in Global Security

http://www.northropgrumman.com/

Northrop Grumman, like BAE Systems, Booz Allen Hamilton, the MASY Group, and NEK above, is also involved in hiring for the Human Terrain System. One recent job ad was sought a “Human Terrain Analysis (HTA) Program Coordinator” to “manage the development of the HTA curriculum for Northrop Grumman Information Systems.” Requirements include “Human Terrain application experience” and “awareness of the workings of military Human Terrain in the field” (http://careers.northropgrumman.com/ExternalHorizonsWeb/getJobPostDetail.do?sequenceNumber=190065). Another position was for a “Human Terrain Analysis Subject Matter Expert (SME)” to be based at Fort Belvoir, VA. According to the advertisement, “The Human Terrain Analysis Subject Matter Expert (SME) is a team member with specialized skills and in-depth knowledge in the HTA discipline. The SME supports design, development, implementation and evaluation of training and education using this specialized expertise; contributes to the execution of project task plans; and assesses the implications of trends, policies and methodologies on future HTA training” (http://careers.northropgrumman.com/ExternalHorizonsWeb/getJobPostDetail.do?sequenceNumber=189661).


(22) Overwatch Systems

http://tactical.overwatch.com/products/mapht.html

Overwatch Systems focuses on “Mapping the Human Terrain (MapHT) JCTD”— developing “Human terrain socio-cultural information software”—“because culture matters!”: “Mapping the Human Terrain (MapHT) JCTD helps you to understand the cultural cues in the environments in which you operate by transforming random and disconnected events into a more predictable and actionable decision-making process. The core technology provided by the JCTD includes infrastructure management, web research, social network analysis and real-time collaboration to collect, store, process, analyze, visualize and share your green data through all phases of the mission.” (For a little more, see their glossy brochure at http://tactical.overwatch.com/pdfs/datasheets/mapht_brochure.pdf.)

The objectives of MapHT-JCTD is to provide “commanders with relevant, socio-cultural information and knowledge, and the dedicated expertise to integrate that understanding into their military decision-making process.” Its aim is to provide “cultural information and knowledge to enhance operational effectiveness.” Another aim is to minimize the loss in continuity when units are transferred out, and replacements rotated in.

Overwatch Systems Tactical Operations recently became engaged in the development of essential software capabilities for HTS (see http://www.geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/mgt-archives/107-mgt-2009-volume-7-issue-2/930-mapping-the-human-terrain.html).

Overwatch Systems Tactical Operations was awarded the contract for “developing state-of-the-art software and automation for the purposes of collecting critical socio-cultural data, aggregating that data, and assisting multifunctional teams in subsequently analyzing the data.” The initial capability will be “a MAP-HT toolkit, which is designed to populate and share the human terrain knowledge-base across the battlespace enterprise. The system will be built in concert with and on the DCGS-A software baseline.” Note that the information collected by Human Terrain researchers will be used by all others who have access to the database. In addition, a “combined government team consisting of CENTCOM and the Army Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate (I2WD) will provide operational and technical management of the Overwatch Systems Tactical Operations’ effort (see http://www.geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/mgt-archives/107-mgt-2009-volume-7-issue-2/930-mapping-the-human-terrain.html).

The work of Overwatch dovetails with that of Ascend’s TIGR (see the entry for Ascend above): “human terrain teams are now using a tool called Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR) for collection and will soon have a new analytic tool derived from the Distributed Common Ground System-Army (DCGS-A) called Mapping the Human Terrain (MAP-HT)” (http://www.geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/mgt-archives/107-mgt-2009-volume-7-issue-2/930-mapping-the-human-terrain.html).

Colonel Daniel Wolfe, HTS’ own IT Director, spoke of Overwatch’s work: “HTS, through integration with the Joint Training C-IED Operations Center (JTCOIC), is rapidly moving forward in dramatically improving knowledge management. Improvements include data collection, defining standard products, improved analytic tools, and establishing a data management framework with optimized work/data flow for all security domains….Specifically, DCGS-A Multi-Function WorkStation (MFWS), through the MAP-HT Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) program, is being tailored for HTS analytic use, and the DCGS-A database is being modified for social-cultural data fields” (http://www.geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/mgt-archives/107-mgt-2009-volume-7-issue-2/930-mapping-the-human-terrain.html).

Additionally, “the TIGR system has been adopted and modified for data collection and lowest echelon dissemination of HTS products” (http://www.geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/mgt-archives/107-mgt-2009-volume-7-issue-2/930-mapping-the-human-terrain.html).

(23) RAND Corporation Provides Objective Research Services and Public Policy Analysis

http://www.rand.org/

From Roberto González: “After Robert Gates replaced Donald Rumsfeld as Defense Secretary, there was a boom in funding for projects focused on human terrain research and “culture-centric” warfare, and this attracted dozens of companies from the military-industrial complex-BAE Systems, Aptima Corporation, MITRE, the RAND Corporation, Wexford Group, MTC Technologies, NEK Advanced Securities Group, and Alpha Ten to name a few” (http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html).

(24) RTI International

http://www.rti.org/

While RTI has no known contracts for HTS as such, it has produced research in support of Human Terrain analysis, for example:

Calibrating and Validating Large Scale Agent-Based Simulations of Populations2009 IITSEC Paper No. 9128Douglas Roberts, Philip C. Cooley, Diane Wagener, Geoffrey FrankRTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Modeling the “human terrain” is important for effective training of non-kinetic missions in urban terrain. It is equally important for planning responses to epidemics of infectious diseases, where combinations of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and social distancing are the tools to be employed. Social distancing methods include quarantine; closing schools, workplaces, and community centers; and travel restrictions. Social distancing methods are relevant to both non-kinetic missions and responses to epidemics. (page 77 in https://www.tena-sda.org/download/attachments/6750/IITSEC-Program-Guide-2009.pdf)


(25) SAIC: From Science to Solutions®

http://www.saic.com

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) also hires for HTS, along with BAE Systems, Booz Allen Hamilton, the MASY Group, NEK, and Northrop Grumman. Here is one recent example of a job advertisement from SAIC:

“The Integrated Intelligence Solutions (I2S) Operation of SAIC – Operations, Intelligence and Security Business Unit has an opening for a Human Terrain Analyst II”:
http://careers.diversityinc.com/careers/jobsearch/detail?jobId=23242211&utm_source=SimplyHired&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=SimplyHired

SAIC, along with BAE Systems, lobbied intelligence officials to “buy products specifically designed for domestic surveillance” (http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14821).

Interestingly, according to a SAIC news release, Lockheed Martin Corporation also has an interest in human terrain research: “Prior to joining SAIC, Chen was vice president of business innovation at Lockheed Martin Corp. where he led technology development, business models and strategy for a broad spectrum of areas including human terrain exploitation” (http://investors.saic.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=314634).

SAIC specializes in surveillance and almost always is contracted for intelligence work. According to Pratap Chatterjee (19 March 2010), “Founded in 1969 by physicist J. Robert Beyster, SAIC’s biggest source of income has always been surveillance, especially for U.S. spy agencies: it is reportedly the largest recipient of contracts from the National Security Agency (NSA) and one of the top five contractors to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). For example, in 2002 SAIC won the 282-million-dollar job of overseeing the latest phase of Trailblazer, the most thorough revamping in the NSA’s history of its eavesdropping systems. ‘We are a stealth company,’ Keith Nightingale, a former Army special ops officer, told a now-defunct magazine named Business 2.0. ‘We’re everywhere, but almost never seen’.”


(26) SCIA Solutions LLC (Earl Industries)

http://www.sciasolutions.com/
http://www.earl-ind.com/pages_images/technology.html

Swen Johnson, who holds a doctorate in sociology, founded SCIA after completing a five-year enlistment in the Army. SCIA began in 2005 in Reston, Virginia, “as a small, veteran-owned business providing the counterterrorism community with intelligence analysts specifically trained in “socio-cultural” and “human terrain” research and analysis” (http://www.sciasolutions.com/about.htm). SCIA has explicitly sought to create maps that can be used for targeted killing of suspected “insurgents” or “bad guys.”

In 2008, SCIA was purchased by Earl Industries: “ETG Companies are expert at: Capturing and marshalling information from video, images, sensors, and text; Extracting knowledge from the information and converting it into actionable form; and Systematically reducing risk and improving decision-making within complex military, intelligence, and commercial processes” (http://www.earl-ind.com/pages_images/technology.html).

It is not apparent that SCIA has any direct link with the Human Terrain System as such, but it does pursue hiring and training in human terrain analysis and has direct ties to the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM). SCIA stated that it “is expanding and currently looking for qualified geospatial, human terrain, and all-source intelligence analysts to work in Tampa, FL; Stuttgart, Germany; Herndon, VA, and elsewhere….Employment with SCIA includes mandatory enrollment in our Socio-Cultural Analyst Training Program (a 208-hour curriculum leading to the community’s only Human Terrain Analysis Certificate).” Boasting that “SCIA’s analysts offer a powerful combination of military experience, behavioral / social science education, all-source analytic skills, and subject matter expertise in the cultures they study,” they credit the “success of our methods and understanding of our products” for the fact that “the terms ‘socio-cultural’ and ‘human terrain’ analysis have become institutionalized in the intelligence community.” Citing themselves as among the founders of “niche of the intelligence analytic community,” SCIA proclaims that it continues “to break new ground with SCIA Academy (we are the first to teach Human Terrain Analysis to the intelligence and academic communities in our 3-day seminars), our internal Socio-Cultural Analyst Training Program (we are the first to have developed a robust training program that requires our analysts to be tested every 15 days on skills, knowledge, and techniques necessary to be a successful socio-cultural analyst in the demanding DoD environments in which we work); HTA Laboratories (our in-house Research and Development arm that partners with academia to discover new and better ways to conduct geospatial predictive analysis); and, Concierge (our new product, currently in beta testing, due for release in AUG 09) (http://www.sciasolutions.com/about.htm).

SCIA Solutions hires its own “Human Terrain Analysts”. In one ad, it described its HTS as one who “conceptualizes, collects, and constructs socio-cultural intelligence data for use in geospatial descriptive and predictive models for a wide variety of intelligence and non-intelligence applications.” In addition, their HTS “creates human terrain maps by data-mining and data-basing socio-cultural information on individuals, grouping them according to social-scientific principles, vetting the information for specificity and accuracy, and using geospatial, SNA, and all-source tools to create professional presentations.” Also worthy of note, their HTAs are responsible for “liaising with recognized experts in academia.” The HTS studies what SCIA calls, “traditional aspects of culture, making elements of it actionable by focusing on the geospatial aspects of tribal, religious, ethnic, racial, language, occupational, and other social groups.” In sum, the HTA “leverages cultural subject expertise, geospatial technology, all-source intelligence analytical skills, social scientific concepts/theories/methods, and social network analytical concepts to analyze the socio-cultural dynamics of given areas in a geospatial context” (http://www.sciasolutions.com/HTA_Position.html; see also http://www.intelligencecareers.com/jobs/jobview.cfm?jobid=2359719&refsrc=HR_FL).

SCIA also has a relationship with George Mason University. SCIA offers a three-day training seminar on “Human Terrain Analysi”s through George Mason University’s Professional Certificate in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) program each year year. The HTA Seminar “introduces analysts to the tools and methods they need for socio-cultural and human terrain analysis, emphasizing social science concepts and methods, geospatial skills specific to human terrain analysis; subject matter expertise of particular cultures of interest; social network analytical software and concepts, and traditional all-source intelligence analytical methods.”

At George Mason, SCIA offers the following course: GIS 0270: Human Terrain Analysis. The course is described as follows: “This course examines the emerging field of Human Terrain Analysis, with specific application to defense and intelligence applications of GIS. Social scientific theories regarding the geospatial correlates of role and status will be discussed; differences between geophysical and geo-social data will be debated; choice of spatial tools and software packages will be explored, and methodologies for temporal analysis with respect to human behavior will be analyzed. Students will use ArcGIS, ThreatMapper, CASE, and CrimeStat III to produce descriptive, explanatory, and predictive assessments of where significant social groups are and may be found in both micro (village) and macro (regional) settings” (http://www.ocpe.gmu.edu/programs/gis/human_terrain.php).

See also the article, “Mapping Culture: SCIA’s Novel Approach to Fusing Social Science and Geospatial Technology to Go Beyond Traditional Intelligence Analysis — Press Release,” by Matthew Cooper, 5 October 2009, Defense Procurement News (http://www.defenseprocurementnews.com/topics/companies/scia/):

“As the military broadens its approach to include tribal engagement, stability operations, and support to sovereign governments, SCIA is helping transform the way intelligence data is collected and analyzed.

“SCIA’s approach to Human Terrain Analysis is about providing a niche type of intelligence analysis that helps our soldiers when they engage tribes and clans in dangerous locations. We go beyond simple demographics to study the micro-sociological environment from a geospatial perspective.”

SCIA sees its products as also having commercial applications.

In ‘Culture Maps’ Becoming Essential Tools of War (February 2010), Grace V. Jean tells us that.

“The commander of U.S. Central Command, Army Gen. David Petraeus, in a number of speeches has repeatedly said that “human terrain” is the decisive element in counterinsurgency operations. ‘His remarks have had a rippling effect across the intelligence community,’ said Jesse Wilson, who works at the command’s Afghanistan Pakistan Intelligence Center of Excellence. Officials there are pairing human terrain analysts with traditional intelligence teams….Intelligence analysts collect all the relevant geospatial information over an area, including the mapping, terrain elevation data and the latest imagery, and then analyze the terrain looking for culverts or other physical features that might lend themselves to an ambush or an improvised explosive device, or IED, attack, he said. They also include data from other intelligence disciplines such as signals or human intelligence. At Central Command, the human terrain specialists work side by side with the geospatial-intelligence analysts to produce maps of a different vein, said Wilson, team chief of regional commands south and west in the human terrain analysis branch. Human terrain analysts are trained to hone in on cultural facts quickly and fuse them with geospatial data to make maps that traditional analysts wouldn’t normally consider, said Swen Johnson, founder and CEO of SCIA LLC, a Reston, Va.-based company that specializes in socio-cultural intelligence analysis. Human terrain analysts seek to map out where tribes, ethnic groups and religious sects are located. They document attitudes — where a population’s beliefs and values are most prevalent — and annotate where certain behaviors tend to occur or not occur.

“Human terrain” maps are assembled in layers so that analysts can correlate previously unrelated qualities of an area to each other, Johnson explained. One map might show the locations of all the tribes in a region. A second map of that same region might depict the known locations of all the suspected insurgents. By superimposing one over the other, an analyst might discover that the bad guys are in a single tribe.

“Social dynamics information, including local grievances and tribal riffs, can bolster troops’ knowledge of whether certain individuals or groups should be deemed friend or foe. Such maps could also be useful for search and rescue, and humanitarian assistance teams.

“Zeroing in on the things that matter to the populations that we study and then turning that cultural information into a geospatial product is really at the heart of what we do,” said Johnson, an Army veteran.

“Because troops at all levels are finding utility in human terrain data, Central Command officials are pushing a plan to network U.S., coalition and allied forces into a single socio-cultural knowledge database that will provide them with pooled information.

“You’re seeing an effort that actually transcends any single discipline and a link between civil operations and military operations,” said Air Force Maj. Tom Hornik, chief of the command’s human terrain analysis branch within the Afghanistan Pakistan Intelligence Center of Excellence.

The so-called Afghanistan Pakistan tribal knowledge base would be accessed through a secure Internet host site, the Combined Information Data Network Exchange, or CIDNE.

CIDNE is available for use by coalition forces in Afghanistan, said Air Force Maj. John Redfield, a spokesman for U.S. Central Command. It is available via three networks: combined enterprise regional information exchange system (CENTRIXS), battlefield information collection and exploitation system (BICES), and secret Internet protocol router network (SIPRNET) (http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2010/February/Pages/
%E2%80%98CultureMaps%E2%80%99BecomingEssentialToolsofWar.aspx
).

(27) Sensor Technologies (STI) (ManTech International Corporation)

http://sensortechnologies.com

http://www.mantech.com

In January 2010 Sensor Technologies (STI, of Red bank, New Jersey) was acquired by ManTech International Corp., based in Fairfax, Virginia. ManTech spent $242 million on the acquisition. ManTech is an important contractor for the National Security Agency (NSA), and claims to have “perfected the art of creating multi-agency software programs for both foreign and domestic intelligence.” After the 11 September 2001 attachs, ManTech created the “Joint Regional Information Exchange System” for the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA): “DIA used it to combine classified and unclassified intelligence on terrorist threats on a single desktop.” After that, the software was sold to the Department of Homeland Security for its “Homeland Security Information Network” (see: http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14821, and, http://www.mantech.com/about). STI itself supports program management offices across the Army in biometrics, HTS, communications, and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (http://washingtontechnology.com/articles/2010/02/01/upfront-eye-on-m-and-a.aspx). ManTech acquired STI in order to have direct access to the Army Communications and Electronics Command, via STI’s existing contracts.

ManTech is well aware of the controversies surrounding the U.S. Army’s Human Terrain System. According to Sami Lais in “ManTech acquisition targets valuable Army customer,” Washington Technology, 28 January 2010 (http://washingtontechnology.com/articles/2010/02/01/upfront-eye-on-m-and-a.aspx):

“The Army’s HTS program, which STI, along with BAE Systems Inc. and SAIC, has long supported, is also a headline maker. Human Terrain Teams (HTTs), made up of military personnel, linguists, area studies specialists and civilian social scientists, are embedded with U.S. military units in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although not universally accepted by troops on the ground — some HTTs allegedly spent most of their time at headquarters surfing the Web — some teams have achieved their intended goal.

“…the program also has been roundly denounced by the American Anthropological Association for weaponizing anthropology and ignoring ethical considerations, most recently in a 74-page report released in December.

“It’s an area we don’t enter lightly,” Davis said of HTS. “But the work STI does is consistent with work we do and have done before the acquisition.” Also, he said, “ManTech as a company has always been willing to stand shoulder to shoulder with our customer outside the wire,” a reference to the dangerous area outside the relative safety of the green zone in Iraq. The company has a history of taking on risky work, such as the clearing of mines with mine-resistant vehicles, he pointed out.

“It’s about what is most important for our most important customer,” he said. “We can choose to be involved or choose not to be involved.”

STI has also worked with Glevum Associates in Afghanistan, according to John Stanton: “Glevum Associates, a private subcontractor in the Human Terrain System (HTS), is run by Andrew Garfield (formerly with Lincoln Group) and Alicia Boyd (formerly with Lincoln Group and JIEDDO). Glevum is reportedly scheduled to receive over $20 million (USD) from the HTS money trough to conduct polling/research in Iraq over the next year. Sources say that Glevum used Iraqis to collect data for them. Alicia Boyd (now in Afghanistan) and John Bornemann were sent to Iraq to conduct/oversee the research for Glevum/HTS without a contract. According to sources, there was no contract vehicle or authority that covered that action. Further, sources say they have never seen a Statement of Work (SOW), standard for government contracts,

“The prime [contractor] is STI (Sensory Technology International) and the sub is Glevum. Actually, a third company is conducting the actual polling and focus groups (http://cryptome.info/0001/hts-waste.htm).


(28) USI Inc.

http://www.usi-inc.net/

Colonel Daniel Wolfe, HTS’ own IT Director, is the President and CEO of Universal Solutions.

See: USI, Inc. – Case Studies (http://www.usi-inc.net/12.html?sm=52381): Human Terrain System (HTS) expansion across MNC-I Brigade Combat Teams

USI is referenced by John Stanton in http://zeroanthropology.net/2010/02/09/new-details-emerge-in-salomi-hostage-case-john-stanton/

Also from John Stanton: “the Knowledge Management (KM) Directorate is headed by [Colonel] Dan [Daniel] Wolfe [HTS Technology Director], President/CEO of Universal Solutions, Inc (USI) located in Virginia. The other contractor involved was Ascend Intelligence (recently purchased by General Dynamics C4 Systems (GDC4S). Bradley Green is the new Project Manager for GDC4S/HTS. Observers allege that Wolfe redirects ‘a lot of program money to his own company.’ For example, the SSRA work is contracted through him and then subcontracted to Glevum Associates, so Wolfe profits from that contract too. Wolfe apparently advises Steve Fondacaro (HTS program manager) on all the IT & KM related matters

http://zeroanthropology.net/2010/02/09/new-details-emerge-in-salomi-hostage-case-john-stanton


(29) Wexford GroupCACI

http://www.caci.com/wexford

http://www.caci.com

The Wexford Group of Vienna, Virginia, was acquired by CACI International.

According to Max Boot, a “neoconservative” writer at the Council on Foreign Relations, interrogators from CACI International were in the middle of the Abu Ghraib torture scandal (http://www.cfr.org/publication/7977/iraq_wars_outsourcing_snafu.html?breadcrumb=%2Fbios%2F5641%2F%3Fgroupby%3D3%26%253Bhide%3D1%26%253
Bid%3D5641%26filter%3D2005%26page%3D3
).

According to Dahr Jamail, basing his work on that of Roberto González, “embedded scholars, contracted through companies like CACI International, work in the project that is described by CACI as ‘designed to improve the gathering, understanding, operational application, and sharing of local population knowledge’ among combat teams” (http://dahrjamailiraq.com/occupying-hearts-and-minds). Also from Roberto González: “After Robert Gates replaced Donald Rumsfeld as Defense Secretary, there was a boom in funding for projects focused on human terrain research and “culture-centric” warfare, and this attracted dozens of companies from the military-industrial complex-BAE Systems, Aptima Corporation, MITRE, the RAND Corporation, Wexford Group, MTC Technologies, NEK Advanced Securities Group, and Alpha Ten to name a few” (http://www.counterpunch.org/price02032009.html).

Charlie King, a retired colonel, worked as both a “Team Lead” on a Human Terrain Team, at the Wexford Group, for two years. He states on his Linkedin profile that he is: “Currently team lead of a Human Terrain Team (HTT) in support of 3/82 BCT, in Baghdad. Focus is on the districts of NE Baghdad which include Sadr City, Adhamiya, and Istiqlaal. More on HTT can be found on line at humanterrainsystem.army.mil . . . Wikipedia has posted this definition of what I am leading: a controversial, experimental counter-insurgency effort of the United States military which embeds anthropologists and other social scientists with combat brigades in Iraq and Afghanistan to help tacticians in the field understand local cultures” (http://www.linkedin.com/pub/king-charlie-col-r/a/175/916). (Incidentally, Linkedin serves as a useful database of profiles of dozens of HTS employees.)

In Iraq, SKTs—or “small kill teams”—of five to eight soldiers learned to ambush bomb emplacers, often hiding for hours or days near IED “hot spots.” According to the Washington Post: “Under a $258 million contract, Wexford Group International of Vienna, Va., and the Asymmetric Warfare Group, a new Army unit formed…at Fort Meade, Md., dispatched field teams to the theater to help sharpen tactics and techniques. Troops were advised to ‘get off the X’—the blast seat in an IED attack—and to ‘build a box,’ with surveillance cameras, for example, in which to spot and trap insurgent bombers. (From: ‘If you don’t go after the network, you’re never going to stop these guys. Never.’ By Rick Atkinson, Washington Post, Wednesday, October 3, 2007; A01: http://www.thefirearmsforum.com/showthread.php?t=39602.)

(30) CLI Solutions

http://www.clisolutions.com/

CLI Solutions describes itself as “a Service- Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business (SDVOB) founded in 2005. Headquartered in Tampa, Florida,” and as “a key member of the U.S. Army’s Human Terrain System” (see here also).  It claims to have 35 employees, the majority of whom are “forward deployed” in Iraq and Afghanistan.


CLI Solutions states that it provides HTS with translation services (especially as we know that HTS has had a serious problem fielding people with any knowledge of local languages):

“We translate documentation on a daily basis for the U.S. Central Command, The U.S. Army’s Human Terrain System and a number of smaller clients. CLI Solutions currently has personnel at U.S. Central Command providing native level translation services. Providing native level translation of languages offers our clients the ability to better understand the information enabling them to deal more efficiently with foreign speakers on global level. Translation services are provided by technically qualified and experienced native speakers producing written verbatim as well as inferred summaries including the cultural meanings and subtleties behind the literal translation.” (from: http://www.clisolutions.com/aboutus.htm)

In addition, CLIS boasts of its expertise in intelligence: “has extensive experience in a variety of disciplines which include but are not limited to, Open source Intelligence Analyst, Order of Battle intelligence Analyst, and MASINT Analyst” (from: http://www.clisolutions.com/aboutus.htm).

CLIS also hires Human Terrain personnel (see: http://www.clisolutions.com/careers.htm).

Penny Tardona, who is CLIS’ Human Terrain System Program Manager, retired from the Navy, and who previously worked for one of the corporations listed above — SAIC — where she worked “as the Deputy Program Manager overseeing the daily management of more than 70 contractors supporting the NSA. She stayed at SAIC in Maryland for six years before making the move to Tampa, Florida” (see http://www.clisolutions.com/bios.htm#4).

(31) Walsingham Group

http://www.walsinghamgroup.com/hscb.html

On its website, we learn that the Walsingham Group is owned and run by retired military personnel with “extensive backgrounds and recent relevant experience in Special Operations, Intelligence and Homeland Security.” Clearly, as indicated elsewhere on its site, it is simultaneously engaged in “Human Factors & Human Social Cultural Behavioral Programs” and “Intelligence, CI/HUMINT, SOF & Irregular Warfare Support.” It also offers “Geospatial Integration for Intelligence Products.”

Walsingham has been contracted by HTS for the following purposes:

  • Conduct Cultural Operations Research in support of the Human Terrain System and collaborative efforts.
  • Develop new methods for data collection and analysis.
  • Perform HSCB Data Collection and Integration.
  • Advise operational force on Human Terrain (current operating picture, trends, and seams).
  • Analyze data from a variety of sources operating in theatre (e.g. conventional military patrols, non-governmental
  • organizations, international organizations, Civil Affairs units, and Special Forces).
  • Assist in collecting and organizing Socio-cultural data into the HTT Toolkit.
  • Assemble data into written briefs to be delivered for operational awareness.
  • rovides expert analysis and research support for the government.
  • Applies social/anthropological/behavioral concepts and methodologies in conduct of geospatial intelligence analysis.
  • Prepares assessments of current events based on the sophisticated collection, research and analysis of
  • classified/unclassified and open source information.
  • Develops and maintains analytical procedures to meet changing requirements and ensure maximum operations.

(32) Integrated Training Solutions

http://www.itsnc.net/site/home

Integrated Training Solutions (ITS), with offices in Arlington, Viriginia, and Sanford, North Carolina, advertises itself as a “Service Veteran Owned Small Business,” in existence since 1999. It boasts of a “secured facility” in North Carolina, and lists its services as “Integration of culture and foreign languages; providing culture for education and training; strategic planning; advanced analytics [sic] methods; marketing advanced concepts to stakeholders.” It also claims to offer training in “social science theory and social science practice” and offers “solutions” for “operational challenges in cultural readiness” — where “culture” is operationalized clearly as a military construct linked to “readiness.” Without offering detail, but like other private military contractors, ITS also states that it offers “personnel security.”

Listed under “news” for 31 March 2010 on its website, ITS offers the following document, “Culture for COIN Mission Planning, Operations, and Training and for Foreign Language Training” (also available here). In that document, ITS speaks of its

“Mission-based Culture Assessment Toolkit™. This toolkit is a structured process for determining and providing mission based quantitative cultural data for COIN mission planning, operations, and training. It consists of two primary tools: Mission-based Culture Assessment Requirement Tool (M-CART™) determines cultural requirements and obtains data for COIN categories, attributes, and parameters, levels of importance, and support for achieving end-state goals. The M-CART™ includes web based capabilities enabling SMEs on-site worldwide to quickly provide input for their functional areas of expertise, and to refresh data. Mission-based Culture Assessment Tool (M-CAT™) compiles, maintains, retrieves, and processes quantitative cultural data for cultural assessments and action plans.”

That ITS has a relationship with HTS is something specified in USA/USMC Counterinsurgency Center, U.S. Army Stability Operations Proponent, U.S. Army Security Force Assistance Proponent, SITREP, 9 April 2010 (also available here). In that document ITS speaks of a  “Human Terrain Data Analysis Meeting,” held on 19 March 2010 at the “COIN Center,” where

“HTS, and CGSC COIN Chair met with Dr. Robert Helms, Integrated Training Solutions Company (ITS) to view applicability of ITS tools to quantify and integrate culture in COIN planning, operations and training. Dr. Helms demonstrated use of ITS mission-based cultural assessment tools which use structured processes to integrate and operationalize COIN dynamics and doctrine. Next steps: CAC team to explore applicability of ITS tools for analytical, battle command, and/or training applications using human terrain variables.”

More information on other areas of HTS development are also provided in that document.

(33) i2 and ESRI

http://www.i2group.com/
http://www.esri.com/

i2 describes itself as “the leading provider of intelligence and investigation solutions for defense, national security, law enforcement and commercial security. Over 4,500 organizations in 149 countries rely on the i2 Intelligence-Led Operations Platform to proactively deter, prevent, predict and disrupt the world’s most sophisticated criminal and terrorist threats. i2 started the intelligence revolution in 1990 and continues to lead the industry in innovation with products like Analyst’s Notebook® and COPLINK®. These solutions enable public safety officers, analysts, managers, detectives and investigators to uncover hidden connections faster, deliver timely and actionable results and communicate complex situations more clearly than ever.”

ESRI describes itself as “the market leader in GIS, ESRI software is used in more than 300,000 organizations worldwide including each of the 200 largest cities in the United States, most national governments, more than two-thirds of Fortune 500 companies, and more than 7,000 colleges and universities. ESRI applications, running on more than one million desktops and thousands of Web and enterprise servers, provide the backbone for the world’s mapping and spatial analysis.”

i2 and ESRI have recently teamed up to produce several new ESRI geospatial modules for i2’s Analysts’ Notebook. is i2 Vice President of Product Marketing Guillaume Tissot stated:

“Human terrain mapping is an increasingly essential tool for ongoing counterinsurgency efforts in defense theaters of operation. Understanding and mapping the nuanced political, social, ethnic and religious networks in an area of operation is critical to COIN, and our collaboration with ESRI gives commanders and human terrain teams the best solution of its kind for accomplishing their mission.”

Lew Nelson, Industry Solutions Manager at ESRI, also said:

“From human terrain mapping in support of COIN efforts to intelligence-led policing and counter terrorism, the end result will help an organization more effectively meet their mission.”

We are told that “human terrain mapping” allows analysts and commanders to “visually understand the social dimension of their battlespace, including religious boundaries, economic structures, community leadership and other sociological information.” In addition, this collaboration between the two companies will result in a product that allows “analysts, commanders and field operators to collaborate in mapping this data in a quickly understood human terrain picture, enabling more proactive engagement with local communities and more efficient responses to events.”

See also “ESRI, i2 to jointly offer intel solutions,” UPI, 27 May 2010.

That HTS uses the “Analyst’s Notebook” developed by i2 and had a license for Esri‘s ArcGIS, is also confirmed by John Stanton:

Further, the licenses for Analyst Notebook and ARC GIS have expired. Sources say “it’ll take another $60 million to get the system operating and usable.” Evidently, Fondacaro is trying to get the $60 million slipped into the Army’s O&S budget request so it will not be noticed.

DMLI

(34) DevelopMental Labs Inc. (DMLI)

http://www.dlabs-inc.com/index.html

Referenced by former HTS social science cadet, John Allison, with notes on its training program.

(35) Lockheed Martin

http://www.lockheedmartin.com/

Referenced by John Stanton inCyber Warlords Push Counterinsurgency, Social Science: Human Terrain System as a Cautionary Tale,” we learn that the Pentagon’s new Cyber Command (CYBERCOM), with the support of Lockheed Martin, seeks to create a military cyber-surge that is modeled on the same principles as the Human Terrain System.

See also: Lockheed Martin’s magazine, Breakthrough, Second Quarter 2011, pages 7-10, we read of the development of the “Human Terrain Pathfinder,” an application of human terrain data gathering to mining online social media. As Lockheed Martin states, the Pathfinder development “seeks a future in which understanding and forecasting of population sentiment in social media can become a new sensor for national security missions” (p. 8). On page 7, the magazine states: “Civil unrest often takes to the Internet and social media sites as readily as the streets, as demonstrated by recent events in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya. Thus, a desire has emerged to capture and assess elements of the ‘human terrain.’ In areas of global instability, thoughtful gauging of the local population, culture and customs, sociological make-up and history improves tactical planning and operations, and ultimately, enhances national security missions”. Lockheed Martin’s own :Human Terrain team, in association with Information Systems & Global Solutions (IS&GS) – Security, built solutions upon systems like commercially available smartphones to offer affordable devices with a familiar user experience in the field. They developed applications, web services, databases and analytical tools with features critical for analysis and forecasting of emerging population-centric mission outcomes” (p. 9). Throughout the promotional article, images of U.S. troops reading handheld devices over maps of Middle Eastern “hot spots,” accompanied by scenes of angry crowds, predominate.

(36) CGI

http://www.cgi.com/en/careers/hts

Montreal-based CGI has taken over from BAE Systems, as of 2011, in recruiting for HTS. See John Stanton’s September 26, 2011, article: “Canadians Win US Army Combat Support Contract: Human Terrain System in CGI, Oberon”. As Stanton tells us, CGI “has been awarded just over $227 million (US) to run the US Army’s Human Terrain System (HTS), which ‘directly supports combat units in OIF/OEF [Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan]’ according to the Office of the Assistant to the Secretary of the Army”. Also see Anthropologists for Justice and Peace: “Alert: Canada Is Now Home to Recruitment for the U.S. Army’s Human Terrain System”:

Among its many activities in support of the U.S. military and intelligence apparatus, CGI is responsible for collecting biometric data in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Horn of Africa, for U.S. military and intelligence purposes—“We are a key contributor and active participant in the evolution of biometrics in support of the Global War on Terrorism,” CGI says on its website. CGI is also involved in “large-scale military deployment planning” for the U.S. Government. In addition, CGI provides instructional support and doctrine writing for the U.S. Army. CGI provides “advanced C4ISR engineering,” which as noted by Stanton elsewhere, is something that also involves HTS: “HTS personnel and systems provide a new Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) capability in support of U.S. Army BCTs [brigade combat teams] and USMC RCTs [regimental combat teams]”. C4ISR was also one of the services offered by John Hillen, as President and CEO of Global Defense Technology & Systems, Inc.

In terms of Canadian defence, intelligence, and “public safety,” CGI is again involved in building C4ISR capability, “anti-terrorism” analytics, Air Force “Web Strategy,” and something it refers to rather interestingly as “Social Network Analysis in Counterinsurgency context (SNAC)”. CGI has a wide and diverse range of federal and provincial government contracts in Canada, that in some cases gave it access to the servers and databases for e-government, drivers licenses and Department of Employment information in Quebec.

AEROTEK

(37) AEROTEK

In a report titled, “Human Terrain Systems: cultural deciphering as weaponry,” we are informed that a recruiter, identifying him/herself as an employee with AEROTEK, contacted students at Harvard University via the administration of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies which distributed the recruitment message to students. Students at NYU and Georgetown University also received a similar email message.

One Response “Mapping the Terrain of War Corporatism: The Human Terrain System within the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex” →
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  1. HTS’ MAP HT Failure: People Not Being Paid, MAP HT Cost Overrruns « ZERO ANTHROPOLOGY

    […] contractor Overwatch Tactical Operations [see "Mapping the Terrain of War Corporatism"], a unit of Textron in Texas, is developing the [MAP-HT] software with Suntek as a subcontractor, […]

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